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Center of Intelligent and Learning Systems
Prof. Dong SHEN's Group
College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology

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Books

  1. Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control with Passive Incomplete Information: Algorithm Design and Convergence Analysis. Springer Singapore, 2018. [Click for more details]
  2. Shiping Yang, Jian-Xin Xu, Xuefang Li, Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control for Multi-Agent Systems Coordination. Wiley, 2017. [Click for more details]
  3. Dong Shen. Stochastic Iterative Learning Control. Science Press, 2016 (in Chinese). [Click for more details]
  4. Gang Xiong, Zhong Liu, Xiwei Liu, Fenghua Zhu, Dong Shen (Eds). Service Science, Management and Engineering: Theory and Applications. Academic Press & Zhejiang University Press, 2012. [Click for more details]
    Book:ILCwPII    ILC for MAS    SILC    SSME

Preprints

  1. Dong Shen,Jian-Xin Xu. Robust Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Nonparametric Uncertainties and Non-uniform Trial Lengths. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control. DOI:10.1002/rnc.4437 [WebLink] TOP
  2. Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. Adaptive Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Randomly Varying Iteration Lengths. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems. DOI: 10.1109/TNNLS.2018.2861216 [WebLink] TOP, REGULAR PAPER
Journal Papers
  1. Chengbin Liang, JinRong Wang, Dong Shen. ILC for Linear Discrete Delay Systems via Discrete Matrix Delayed Exponential Function Approach. Journal of Difference Equation and Applications, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1756-1776, 2018. [PDF][WebLink]
  2. Xiaowen Wang, JinRong Wang, Dong Shen, Yong Zhou. Convergence Analysis for Iterative Learning Control of Conformable Fractional Differential Equations. Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences, vol. 41, no. 17, pp. 8315-8328, 2018. [PDF][WebLink]
  3. Shengda Liu, JinRong Wang, Dong Shen, Donal O'Regan. Iterative Learning Control for Noninstantaneous Impulsive Fractional Systems with Randomly Varying Trial Lengths. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 28, no. 18, pp. 6202-6238, 2018. [PDF][WebLink] TOP
  4. Chun Zeng, Dong Shen. JinRong Wang. Adaptive Learning Tracking for Uncertain Systems with Partial Structure Information and Varying Trial Lengths. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 355, no. 15, pp. 7027-7055, 2018. [PDF][WebLink]
  5. Chao Zhang, Dong Shen. Zero-Error Convergence of Iterative Learning Control Based on Uniform Quantisation with Encoding and Decoding Mechanism. IET Control Theory & Applications, vol. 12, no. 14, pp. 1907-1915, 2018. [PDF][WebLink]
  6. Dong Shen. A Technical Overview of Recent Progresses on Stochastic Iterative Learning Control. Unmanned Systems, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 147-164, 2018. [PDF][WebLink] SURVEY
  7. Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. Distributed Learning Consensus for Heterogenous High-Order Nonlinear Multi-Agent Systems with Output Constraints. Automatica, vol. 97, pp. 64-72, 2018. [PDF][WebLink] TOP
  8. Yanqiong Jin, Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Data Dropouts at Both Measurement and Actuator Sides. Asian Journal of Control, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1624-1636, 2018. [PDF]
  9. Dahui Luo, Jinrong Wang, Dong Shen. Learning Formation Control for Fractional-Order Multi-Agent Systems. Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences, vol. 41, no. 13, pp. 5003-5014, 2018. [PDF]
  10. Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control with Incomplete Information: A Survey. IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 885-901, 2018. [PDF] SURVEY
  11. Dong Shen, Chao Zhang, Yun Xu. Intermittent and Successive ILC for Stochastic Nonlinear Systems with Random Data Dropouts. Asian Journal of Control, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1102-1114, 2018. [PDF]
  12. Dong Shen. Data-Driven Learning Control for Stochastic Nonlinear Systems: Multiple Communication Constraints and Limited Storage. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 2429-2440, 2018. [PDF] TOP, REGULAR PAPER
  13. Jian Han, Dong Shen, Chiang-Ju Chien. Terminal Iterative Learning Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems Based on Neural Networks. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 355, no. 8, pp. 3641-3658, 2018. [PDF]
  14. Saurab Verma, Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. Motion Control of Robotic Fish under Dynamic Environmental Conditions using Adaptive Control Approach. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 381-390, 2018. [PDF]
  15. Lanjing Wang, Xuefang Li, Dong Shen. Sampled-data Iterative Learning Control for Continuous-time Nonlinear Systems with Iteration-Varying Lengths. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 3073-3091, 2018. [PDF] TOP
  16. Jinrong Wang, Zijian Luo, Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control for Linear Delay Systems with Deterministic and Random Impulses. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 355, no. 5, pp. 2473-2497, 2018. [PDF]
  17. Zhijiang Lou, Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. Two-Step Principal Component Analysis for Dynamic Processes Monitoring. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 160-170, 2018. [PDF] ESI HIGH CITATION
  18. Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. A Framework of Iterative Learning Control under Random Data Dropouts: Mean Square and Almost Sure Convergence. International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1825-1852, 2017. [PDF]
  19. Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. Distributed Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Multi-Agent Systems with State Constraints. International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing, vol. 31, no. 12, pp. 1779-1807, 2017. [PDF]
  20. Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. A Novel Markov Chain Based ILC Analysis for Linear Stochastic Systems Under General Data Dropouts Environments. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol. 62, no. 11, pp. 5850-5857, 2017. [PDF] TOP
  21. Dong Zhao, Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. Fault Diagnosis and Compensation for Two-Dimensional Discrete Time Systems with Sensor Faults and Time-Varying Delays. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control, vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 3296-3320, 2017. [PDF] TOP, ESI HIGH CITATION
  22. Yun Xu, Dong Shen, Xuhui Bu. Zero-Error Convergence of Iterative Learning Control Using Quantized Information. IMA Journal of Mathematical Control and Information, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 1061-1077, 2017. [PDF]
  23. Yun Xu, Dong Shen, Xiao-Dong Zhang. Stochastic Point-to-Point Iterative Learning Control Based on Stochastic Approximation. Asian Journal of Control, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1748-1755, 2017. [PDF]
  24. Dong Shen, Chao Zhang. Learning Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems With Sensor Saturation and Measurement Noise. International Journal of Systems Sciences, vol. 48, no. 13, pp. 2764-2778, 2017. [PDF]
  25. Xuefang Li, Dong Shen. Two Novel Iterative Learning Control Schemes for Systems with Randomly Varying Trial Lengths. Systems & Control Letters, vol. 107, pp. 9-16, 2017. [PDF]
  26. Dong Shen, Yanqiong Jin, Yun Xu. Learning Control for Linear Systems under General Data Dropouts at Both Measurement and Actuator Sides: A Markov Chain Approach. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 354, no. 13, pp. 5091-5109, 2017. [PDF]
  27. Dong Shen. Almost Sure Convergence of ILC for Networked Linear Systems with Random Link Failures. International Journal of Control, Automation, and Systems, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 647-655, 2017. [PDF]
  28. Dong Shen, Jian Han, Youqing Wang. Stochastic Point-to-Point Iterative Learning Tracking Without Prior Information on System Matrices. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 376-382, 2017. [PDF]
  29. Yun Xu, Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. On Interval Tracking Performance Evaluation and Practical Varying Sampling ILC. International Journal of Systems Science, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1624-1634, 2017. [PDF]
  30. Dong Shen, Jian Han, Youqing Wang. Convergence Analysis of ILC Input Sequence for Underdetermined Linear Systems. SCIENCE CHINA Information Sciences, vol. 60, ID: 099201, 2017. [PDF]
  31. Dong Shen, Chao Zhang, Yun Xu. Two Updating Schemes of Iterative Learning Control for Networked Control Systems with Random Data Dropouts. Information Sciences, vol. 381, pp. 352-370, 2017. [PDF]
  32. Dong Shen, Wei Zhang, Jian-Xin Xu. Iterative Learning Control for Discrete Nonlinear Systems with Randomly Iteration Varying Lengths. Systems & Control Letters, vol. 96, pp. 81-87, 2016. [PDF]
  33. Dong Shen, Yun Xu. Iterative Learning Control for Discrete-time Stochastic Systems with Quantized Information. IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 59-67, 2016. [PDF]
  34. Yuan Tao, Dong Shen, Mengqi Fang, Youqing Wang. Reliable H-\infty Control of Discrete Time Systems Against Intermittent Faults. International Journal of System Sciences, vol. 47, no. 10, pp. 2290-2301, 2016. [PDF]
  35. Dong Shen, Wei Zhang, Youqing Wang, Chiang-Ju Chien. On Almost Sure and Mean Square Convergence of P-type ILC Under Randomly Varying Iteration Lengths. Automatica, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 359-365, 2016. [PDF] TOP
  36. Jianyong Tuo, Huiling Sun, Dong Shen, Hui Wang, Youqing Wang. Optimization of Insulin Pump Therapy Based on High Order Run-to-Run Control Scheme. Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 123-134, 2015. [PDF]
  37. Yuan Tao, Dong Shen, Youqing Wang, Yinzhong Ye. Reliable H-\infty Control for Uncertain Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems Subject to Multiple Intermittent Faults in Sensors and/or Actuators. Journal of the Franklin Institute, vol. 352, pp. 4721-4740, 2015. [PDF]
  38. Zhijiang Lou, Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. Preliminary-Summation-Based Principal Component Analysis for Non-Gaussian Processes. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, vol. 146, pp. 270-289, 2015. [PDF]
  39. Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. ILC for Networked Nonlinear Systems with Unknown Control Direction Through Random Lossy Channel. System & Control Letters, vol. 77, pp. 30-39, 2015. [PDF]
  40. Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. Iterative Learning Control for Networked Stochastic Systems with Random Packet Losses. International Journal of Control, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 959-968, 2015. [PDF]
  41. Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. Survey on Stochastic Iterative Learning Control. Journal of Process Control, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 64-77, 2014. [PDF] SURVEY
  42. Dong Shen, Han-Fu Chen. A Kiefer-Wolfowitz Algorithm Based Iterative Learning Control for Hammerstein-Wiener Systems. Asian Journal of Control, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 1070-1083, 2012. [PDF]
  43. Xin Xu, Dong Shen, Yanqing Gao, Kai Wang. Learning Control of Dynamical Systems Based on Markov Decision Processes: Research Frontiers and Outlooks. Acta Automatica Sinica, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 673-687, 2012. (In Chinese). [PDF] SURVEY
  44. Dong Shen, Han-Fu Chen. ILC for Large Scale Nonlinear Systems with Observation Noise. Automatica, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 577-582, 2012. [PDF] TOP
  45. Dong Shen, Zhongsheng Hou. Iterative Learning Control with Unknown Control Direction: A Novel Approach. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, Special Issue on Data-based Optimization, Control and Modeling, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 2237-2249, 2011. [PDF] TOP, REGULAR PAPER
  46. Dong Shen, Yutao Mu, Gang Xiong. Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Dead-zone Input and Time-delay in Presence of Measurement Noise. IET Control Theory and Applications, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1418-1425, 2011. [PDF]
  47. Dong Shen, Han-Fu Chen. Iterative Learning Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems. Journal of System Science & Mathematics Sciences, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1053-1064, 2008 (In Chinese). [PDF]
Conference Papers
  1. Chao Zhang, Dong Shen. Finite-Level Quantized Iterative Learning Control by Encoding-Decoding Mechanisms. The 2018 IEEE 7th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference, Enshi, China, May 25-27, 2018, pp. 289-294. (This paper won IEEE 7th DDCLS Best Paper Award Finalist)
  2. Chen Liu, Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Consensus for Discrete-time Multi-Agent Systems with Measurement Saturation and Random Noises. The 2018 IEEE 7th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference, Enshi, China, May 25-27, 2018, pp. 50-55.
  3. Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. Zero-Error Tracking of Iterative Learning Control using Probabilistically Quantized Measurements. The 2017 Asian Control Conference (ASCC2017), Gold Coast, Australia,  December 17-20, 2017, pp. 1029-1034.
  4. Dong Shen, Lanjing Wang. On Iterative Learning Tracking Problem for Multi-Sensor Systems. The 43rd Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Beijing, China, October 29-November 1, 2017, pp. 5918-5923.
  5. Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. Iterative Learning Control for Linear Systems with Markov Data Dropouts: Noise-free Case. The 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2017), Dalian, China, July 26-28, 2017, pp. 3304-3309.
  6. Chao Zhang, Dong Shen. Zero-Error Convergence of Iterative Learning Control Using Uniform Quantizer with Encoding and Decoding Method. The 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2017), Dalian, China, July 26-28, 2017, pp. 3473-3478.
  7. Chiang-Ju Chien, Ying-Chung Wang, Meng-Joo Er, Ronghu Chi, Dong Shen. An Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear Systems with Iteration-Varying Uncertainties. IEEE 6th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference (DDCLS17), Chongqing, China, May 26-27, 2017, pp. 390-395.
  8. Xuefang Li, Deqing Huang, Dong Shen, Jian-Xin Xu. Boundary Tracking Control for MIMO PDE-ODE Cascade Systems via Learning Control Approach. IEEE 6th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference (DDCLS17), Chongqing, China, May 26-27, 2017, pp. 78-83.
  9. Lanjing Wang, Dong Shen, Xuefang Li, Chiang-Ju Chien, Ying-Chung Wang. Sampled-data Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems with Iteration Varying Lengths. IEEE 6th Data Driven Control and Learning Systems Conference (DDCLS17), Chongqing, China, May 26-27, 2017, pp. 36-41.
  10. Ying-Chung Wang, Chiang-Ju Chien, Ronghu Chi, Dong Shen. A Direct Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Nonaffine Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems with Unknown Control Directions. 2016 International Conference on Fuzzy Theory and Its Applications (iFuzzy 2016), Taichung, Taiwan, November 9-11, 2016.
  11. Chiang-Ju Chien, Ying-Chung Wang, Meng-Joo Er, Dong Shen, Ronghu Chi. A New Design of Adaptive Terminal Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Systems. 2016 International Automatic Control Conference (CACS 2016), Taichung, Taiwan, November 9-11, 2016, pp.1090-1094.
  12. Fanshou Zhang, Shuming Tang, Dong Shen. A Framework for Cars to Join or Leave a Car Formation. 2016 IEEE 19th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, November 1-4, 2016, pp. 72-76.
  13. Yun Xu, Dong Shen. Practical Sampled-Data Iterative Learning Control with Varying Sampling Rates. The 35th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2016), Chengdu, China, July 27-29, 2016, pp. 3235-3240.
  14. Lin Cao, Bin Hu, Xisong Dong, Gang Xiong, Fenghua Zhu, Zhen Shen, Dong Shen, Yuliang Liu. Two Intersections Traffic Signal Control Method Based on ADHDP. 2016 IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety, Beijing, China, July 10-12, 2016, pp. 31-35.
  15. Dong Shen, Yun Xu. Brief Review on Sampled-Data Iterative Learning Control. The 28th Chinese Control and Decision Conference, Yinchuan, China, May 28-30, 2016, pp. 6830-6835.
  16. Wei Zhang, Lanjing Wang, Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control for Biped Walking Robot with Varying Iteration Lengths. The 28th Chinese Control and Decision Conference, Yinchuan, China, May 28-30, 2016, pp. 4293-4298.
  17. Dazi Li, Lang Liu, Tianheng Song, Dong Shen. On Arbitrary Fractional System Identification in Frequency Domain. The 17th IFAC Symposium on System Identification (SYSID2015), Beijing, China, October 19-21, 2015, pp. 1421-1426.
  18. Chiang-Ju Chien, Ying-Chung Wang, Dong Shen, Ronghu Chi. Design of Fuzzy Adaptive Iterative Learning Control for Nonaffine Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems. The 34th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2015), Hangzhou, China, July 28-30, 2015, pp. 3218-3223.
  19. Jian Han, Dong Shen, Chiang-Ju Chien. Terminal Iterative Learning Control for Discrete-Time Nonlinear System Based on Neural Networks. The 34th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2015), Hangzhou, China, July 28-30, 2015, pp. 3190-3195.
  20. Dong Shen, Yun Xu. Iterative Learning Control for Networked Nonlinear Systems Using Latest Information. The 34th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2015), Hangzhou, China, July 28-30, 2015, pp. 3079-3084.
  21. Wei Zhang, Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control for Discrete-Time Affine Nonlinear System with Iteration Varying Lengths. The 34th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2015), Hangzhou, China, July 28-30, 2015, pp. 3062-3067.
  22. Chiang-Ju Chien, Ying-Chung Wang, Ronghu Chi, Dong Shen. An Adaptive Terminal Iterative Learning Control for Nonaffine Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems. The 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC2015), Qingdao, China, May 23-25, 2015, pp. 1096-1100.
  23. Dong Shen, Wei Zhang, Youqing Wang, Chiang-Ju Chien. Almost Sure and Mean Square Convergence of ILC for Linear Systems with Randomly Varying Iteration Lengths. The 27th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (CCDC2015), Qingdao, China, May 23-25, 2015, pp. 4566-4571.
  24. Dong Shen, YouqingWang. ILC for Networked Discrete Systems with Random Data Dropouts: A Switched System Approach. The 33rd Chinese Control Conference (CCC2014), Nanjing, China, July 28-30, 2014, pp. 8670-8677. (This paper won IEEE CSS Beijing Chapter Young Author Prize).
  25. Dong Shen, YouqingWang. ILC for Networked Control Systems with Asynchronous Multiple Data Dropouts. The 11th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA 2014), Shenyang, China, June 29 - July 4, 2014, pp. 822-827.
  26. Dong Shen, Yu Zhang, Youqing Wang. ILC for Networked Nonlinear Systems with Random Measurement Losses and Unknown Control Direction. The 11th IEEE International Conference on Control & Automation (IEEE ICCA 2014), Taichung, Taiwan, June 18-20, 2014, pp. 1438-1443.
  27. Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. Iterative Learning Control for Networked Stochastic Systems with Random Measurement Losses. The 26th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (2014CCDC), Changsha, China, May 31-June 2, 2014, pp. 4981-4986.
  28. Dong Shen, Youqing Wang. Iterative Learning Control for Stochastic Point-to-Point Tracking System. The 12th International Conference on Control, Automation, Robotics and Vision (ICARCV 2012), Guangzhou, China, Dec. 5-7, 2012, pp. 480-485.
  29. Dong Shen, Gang Xiong. Discrete-time Stochastic Iterative Learning Control: A Brief Survey. The 10th World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation (WCICA2012), Beijing, China, July 6-8, 2012, pp. 2624-2629.
  30. Dong Shen, Shuming Tang. On Data-based Parallel Control. The 3rd Chinese Conference on Parallel Control, Zhangjiajie, China, Nov. 5-6, 2011 (In Chinese).
  31. Dong Shen, Han-Fu Chen. Iterative learning control for Hammerstein-Wiener systems. The 29th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2010), Beijing, China, July 29-31, 2010, pp. 2201-2206 (In Chinese).
  32. Dong Shen, Han-Fu Chen. Iterative Learning Control for a Class of Nonlinear Systems. The 27th Chinese Control Conference (CCC2008), Kunming, China, July 16-18, 2008, pp. 60-64 (In Chinese).
Book Chapters
  1. Dong Shen, Songhang Chen. Urban Transportation Management System based on Ontology and Multi-agent System Technology. Chapter 17 of Service Science, Management and Engineering, pp. 345-372, Academic Press & Zhejiang University Press, 2012.
  2. Zhen Shen, Dong Shen, Gang Xiong, Fei-Yue Wang. On Service Science, Management and Engineering. Chapter 1 of Service Science, Management and Engineering, pp. 1-9, Academic Press & Zhejiang University Press, 2012.
Theses
  1. Dong Shen. On Some Problems of Stochastic Iterative Learning Control, Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2012 (Postdoctor Report).
  2. Dong Shen. Iterative Learning Control for Nonlinear Stochastic Systems, Institute of System Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, 2010 (Doctor Thesis).
Education Papers
  1. Dazi Li, Dong Shen, Hongguang Li. Problem Driven Professional Postgraduate CO-OP Practice of University and Enterprise. Journal of National Academy of Education Administration, no. 2, pp. 43-47, 2018 (in Chinese). [PDF]
  2. Dong Shen, Dazi Li. On Cultivation of Mathematics Ability for Graduate Students in Automation Major. Higher Education in Chemical Engineering, no. 5, pp. 75-79, 2017 (in Chinese). [PDF]
Miscellaneous
  1. Gang Xiong, Zhong Liu, Xiwei Liu, Fenghua Zhu, Dong Shen. Preface of Service Science, Management and Engineering: Theory and Applications.
  2. Dong Shen. Translation of “How Google Finds Your Needle in the Web’s Haystack” by David Austin. Mathematical Culture, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 67-72, 2012. English version: http://www.ams.org/samplings/feature-column/fcarc-pagerank; Chinese version: http://www.global-sci.org/mc/issues/3/no4/.